Machine tools can be powered from a variety of sources. Human and animal power are options, as is energy captured through the use of waterwheels. However, modern machine tools began to develop only after the development of the steam engine, which led to the Industrial Revolution. Today, most machine tools are powered by electricity.
Machine tools can be operated manually, or under automatic control. Early machines used flywheels to stabilize their motion and had complex systems of gears and levers to control the machine and the piece being worked on. Soon after World War II, the numerical control (NC) machine was developed. NC machines used a series of numbers punched on paper tape or punch cards to control their motion. In the 1960s, computers were added to give even more flexibility to the process. Such machines became known as computerized numerical control (CNC) machines. NC and CNC machines could precisely repeat sequences over and over, and could produce much more complex pieces than even the most skilled tool operators.
Before long, the machines could automatically change the specific cutting and shaping tools that were being used. For example, a drill machine might contain a magazine with a variety of drill bits for producing holes of various sizes. Previously, either machine operators would usually have to manually change the bit or move the work piece to another station to perform these different operations. The next logical step was to combine several different machine tools together, all under computer control. These are known as machining centers, and have dramatically changed the way parts are made.
From the simplest to the most complex, most machine tools are capable of at least partial self-replication, and produce machine parts as their primary function.
Examples of machine tools are:
Stewart platform mills
When fabricating or shaping parts, several techniques are used to remove unwanted metal. Among these are:
Electrical discharge machining
Grinding (abrasive cutting)
Multiple edge cutting tools
Single edge cutting tools
Other techniques are used to add desired material. Devices that fabricate components by selective addition of material are called rapid prototyping machines.
Several regions of the United States became centers for machine tool development between 1800 and 1950, including Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Cincinnati, Ohio; Rockford, Illinois; Providence, Rhode Island] Springfield, Vermont; Windsor, Vermont; Hartford, Connecticut; and Bridgeport, Connecticut.
Category:Machine tool builders
Four slide machine
Multimachine - an open source machine tool
^ Moore, Page 137, figure 213
Moore, Wayne R. (1970), Foundations of Mechanical Accuracy (1st ed.), Bridgeport, CT, USA: Moore Special Tool Co., LCCN 73-127307 .
Floud, Roderick C. (2006) , The British Machine Tool Industry, 1850-1914, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, LCCN 2006-275684, LCCN 75-046133, ISBN 0521212030, ISBN 978-0521025553, http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/70251252 .
Hounshell, David A. (1984), From the American system to mass production, 1800-1932: The development of manufacturing technology in the United States, Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press, LCCN 83-016269, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8 .
Moltrecht, Karl Hans (1981), Machine Shop Practice (2 vols) (2nd ed.), New York: Industrial Press, LCCN 79-091236, ISBN 978-0831111267 .
Noble, David F. (1984), Forces of production: a social history of industrial automation, New York: Knopf, LCCN 83-048867, ISBN 978-0-394-51262-4 .
Roe, Joseph Wickham (1916), English and American Tool Builders, New Haven, Connecticut, USA: Yale University Press, LCCN 16-011753, http://books.google.com/books?id=X-EJAAAAIAAJ&printsec=titlepage . Reprinted by McGraw-Hill, New York and London, 1926 (LCCN 27-024075); and by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, IL, USA (ISBN 978-0-917914-73-7).
Rolt, L.T.C. (1965), A Short History of Machine Tools, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT Press, LCCN 65-12439 . Co-edition published as Rolt, L.T.C. (1965), Tools for the Job: a Short History of Machine Tools, London: B. T. Batsford, LCCN 65-080822 .
Woodbury, Robert S. (1972), Studies in the History of Machine Tools, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and London, England: MIT Press, LCCN 72-006354, ISBN 978-0-262-73033-4 . Collection of previously published monographs bound as one volume.
Look up machine tool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
National Institute for Metalworking Skills Standards download page
U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook
American Precision Museum museum that preserves historically important machine tools and helps to educate on the history of machine tools
Canadian Museum of Making
Challenges of high speed spindle motor elements used in machine tools from the motor supplier's view
v d e
Machining & computing
CNC, CAD, and CAM
2.5D CAD CAE CAM CNC G-code Numerical control Stewart platform
Drilling and threading
Die head Drill Drill bit Drill bit shank Drill bit sizes Drill and tap size chart Drilling Jig borer Pin chuck Screw thread Tap and die Tap wrench
Grinding and lapping
Abrasive Angle grinder Bench grinder Coated abrasives Cylindrical grinder Diamond plate Flick grinder Dresser Grinding Grinding machine Grinding wheel Jig grinder Lapping Sanding Spark test Surface grinder Tool and cutter grinder Whetstone
Machining and milling
Electrical discharge machining Electro chemical machining Endmill Engraving Hobbing machine Lathe Machine tool Machining Milling cutter Milling machine Planer Pantograph Shaper
Angle plate Chuck Collet Jig Fixture Indexing head Lathe center Machine taper Magnetic base Mandrel Rotary table Wiggler
Chatter Cutting fluid Cutting speed Swarf Tolerance Tramp oil
Casting Fabrication Forming Jewellery Machining Metallurgy Smithing Tools & Terminology Welding
v d e
Types of tools
Blade Bolt cutter Broach Ceramic tile cutter Chisel Coping saw Countersink Diamond blade Diamond tool Drill bit Endmill File Fretsaw Froe Glass cutter Grater Hacksaw Hand saw Knife Milling cutter Miter saw Pipecutter Plane Razor Reamer Saw Scalpel Scissors Slasher Surform Switchblade Tap and die Tool bit Utility knife Water jet cutter Wire cutter Wire stripper
Adze Axe Billhook Bow saw Cultivator Earth auger Edger Garden fork Garden hose Garden trowel Hedge trimmer Hoe Hori hori Irrigation sprinkler Lawn aerator Lawn mower Lawn sweeper Leaf blower Loppers Machete Mattock Pickaxe Pitchfork Plough (plow) Post hole digger Pruning shears (secateurs) Rake Roller Rotary tiller Scythe Sickle Spade Splitting maul String trimmer
Block plane BNC inserter/remover Brace Bradawl Breaker bar Broom Brush Card scraper Caulking gun Clamp Crimping pliers Crowbar Fish tape Hammer Hawk Hex key Locking pliers Mallet Miter box Nut driver Pipe wrench Pliers Punch Punch down tool Putty knife Ratchet Scratch awl Screwdriver Sledgehammer Sponge Squeegee Staple gun Stitching awl Torque wrench Trowel Upholstery hammer Wrench (spanner)
Broaching machine Drill press Gear shaper Grinding machine Hobbing machine Jig borer Lathe Metalworking lathe Milling machine Planer Screw machine Shaper Turret lathe
Angle grinder Band saw Belt sander Blow torch Chainsaw Chop saw Circular saw Concrete saw Crusher Cutting torch Die grinder Drill Glue gun Grinding machine Heat gun Impact wrench Jigsaw Jointer Nail gun Radial arm saw Random orbital sander Reciprocating saw Rotary tool Router table Sander Scroll saw Soldering gun Soldering iron Steam box Table saw Thickness planer Welding Wood router Wood shaper
Caliper Jig Micrometer Pencil Plumb-bob Ruler Sliding T bevel Spirit level Square Tape measure
Antique tools Halligan bar Kelly tool Ladder Thau claw Toolbox Vise Workbench
Categories: Machine tools | Industrial equipment | Machines | Machining | Tools | WoodworkingHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from October 2008 | All articles needing additional references